In this essay, the author describes the ways in which the Civil War and 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments guaranteed African Americans certain rights, but how those rights were quickly reversed due to intimidation and the Jim Crow system.
Jordan's poem takes on an sarcastic tone as she describes the duties, punishments, emotions and false promises endured by African Americans since slavery in response to Bill Clinton's description of affirmative action as "a psychologically difficult time for the so-called angry White man."
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