PUBLICATION

Appendix

Maureen Costello
Coshandra Dillard

Survey Questions

Where is your school or district located?

Which of these best describes your work setting? 
Elementary school
Middle/intermediate school
High school
Ungraded/Alternative school
Comprehensive (K–12) school
District office
Other (please specify)

Which best describes the student population in your setting?
Primarily white (75 percent–100 percent white students)
Primarily students of color (75 percent–100 percent students of color)
Mix of students of color and white students 

Is there anything else you’d like to tell us about your school and community? 

Have you seen or heard about incidents of vandalism or graffiti involving hate symbols or slurs this school year?
Yes
No

Have you seen or heard about the display of Confederate flags on school property this school year?
Yes
No

Have you seen or heard about harassment, threats, slurs or name-calling based on politics this school year?
Yes
No

Have you seen or heard about harassment, threats, slurs or name-calling directed at immigrants in your school this school year?
Yes
No

Have you seen or heard about harassment, threats, slurs or name-calling directed at Muslims in your school this school year?
Yes
No

Have you seen or heard about harassment, threats, slurs or name-calling based on race in your school this school year?
Yes
No

Have you seen or heard about harassment, threats, slurs or name-calling based on gender or sexual orientation at your school this school year?
Yes
No

Have you seen or heard about antisemitic harassment, threats, slurs or name-calling at your school this school year?
Yes
No

Have you seen or heard about social media posts (including photos or videos) or pranks (involving people at your school) that targeted groups based on their identities this school year?
Yes
No

 

If a respondent answered “yes” to any of the previous questions, they were asked these follow-up questions. These questions were repeated each time the questions above were answered in the affirmative. 

Please describe the incident(s) briefly. Be specific about the symbol or language. 

Who was responsible for the incident(s)?
Student(s)
Teacher
Staff
Family member
Someone outside of the school community
Unknown
Other (please specify)

Where did the incident(s) happen?
Inside a classroom
At a sporting event
In the building
Outside of the building on school grounds
In the community
On social media
Other (please specify)

Was there media coverage?
Yes
No

How did school or district leaders respond? (Select all that apply.)
Disciplined or took other action against the perpetrators
Cited privacy as a reason not to discuss the incident or share details
Communicated (e.g., by text or email) with parents
Issued a public statement
Denounced the act and reaffirmed the school’s values
Investigated beyond the one act
Provided support for marginalized students
Provided guidance or professional development for school staff
Organized pro-social activities
Other (please specify)

Is there anything else you’d like us to know?

What is your name? (We will not share it without your permission.)
I prefer to remain anonymous.
My name is:

Please provide your email address. (We will never share your email address without your permission.)
I’d prefer not to. 
Here’s my email address:

The report we wrote after our last survey drew media attention to classrooms. We expect this to happen again. If you would like the opportunity to tell your story or the story of your students, answer YES to give us permission to provide your email address to a journalist.


Endnotes

  1. Focusing on targeted individuals or groups allowed us a way to control for incidents that included multiple expressions of hate. Under our methodology, the sharing of a racist symbol accompanied by a racial slur counted as one incident of hate based on race or ethnicity. The sharing of a racist symbol accompanied by an anti-Muslim slur, however, counted as two incidents—one based on race or ethnicity and one based on religion.
  2. See information on methodology on page 20.
  3. Maureen B. Costello, “After Election Day: The Trump Effect,” Southern Poverty Law Center, 2016, accessed February 21, 2019, https://www.tolerance.org/magazine/publications/after-election-day-the-….
  4. John Rogers et. al, “Teaching and Learning in the Age of Trump: Increasing Stress and Hostility in America’s High Schools,” UCLA’s Institute for Democracy, Education, and Access, 2017, accessed February 21, 2019, https://idea.gseis.ucla.edu/publications/teaching-and-learning-in-age-o….
  5. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, “2017 Hate Crime Statistics,” accessed February 21, 2019, https://ucr.fbi.gov/hate-crime/2017.
  6. Francisco Vara-Orta, “Hate in Schools: An In-Depth Look,” Education Week, August 6, 2018, accessed February 21, 2019, https://www.edweek.org/ew/projects/hate-in-schools.html.
  7. Francis Huang and Dewey Cornell, “School Teasing and Bullying After the Presidential Election,” [abstract], AERA, accessed February 21, 2019, https://www.aera.net/Newsroom/School-Teasing-and-Bullying-After-the-Pre….
  8. Nancy Krieger and Stephen Sidney, “Racial Discrimination and Blood Pressure: the CARDIA Study of Young Black and White Adults,” October 1996, accessed March 8, 2019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380646/; Yin Paradies et al., “Racism as a Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” PLoS ONE, September 23, 2015, accessed March 8, 2019, https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.01385….
  9. Valerie A. Earnshaw et al., “LGBTQ Bullying: Translating Research to Action in Pediatrics,” Pediatrics, October 2017, accessed March 8, 2019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613818/; Dorainne J. Levy et al., “Psychological and Biological Responses to Race-Based Social Stress as Pathways to Disparities in Educational Outcomes,” American Psychologist, 2016, accessed March 8, 2019, https://spcl.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/Levy_etal2016.pdf; Aprile Benner and Sandra Graham, “The Antecedents and Consequences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination During Adolescence: Does the Source of Discrimination Matter?” [abstract], Developmental Psychology, August 2013, accessed March 8, 2019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23106845; Kathy Sanders-Phillips et al., “Social Inequality and Racial Discrimination: Risk Factors for Health Disparities in Children of Color,” Pediatrics, November 2009, March 8, 2019, https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/124/Supplement_3/S176.sh….
  10. Stephen T. Russell et al., “Indicators of Victimization and Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents: Analyses From Youth Risk Behavior Surveys,” [abstract], American Journal of Public Health, February 2014, accessed March 8, 2019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3935664/; Tumaini R. Coker et al. “Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination Among Fifth-Grade Students and Its Association With Mental Health,” [abstract], American Journal of Public Health, May 2009, accessed March 8, 2019, https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2008.144329.
  11. Ana K. Marcelo and Tuppett M. Yates, “Young Children’s Ethnic–Racial Identity Moderates the Impact of Early Discrimination Experiences on Child Behavior Problems,” Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, [abstract], 2018, accessed March 8, 2019, https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2018-36936-001.
  12. Aprile Benner and Sandra Graham, “The Antecedents and Consequences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination During Adolescence: Does the Source of Discrimination Matter?” [abstract], Developmental Psychology, August 2013, accessed March 8, 2019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23106845.
  13. Johannes Foss Sigurdson, “The Long-term Effects of Being Bullied or a Bully in Adolescence on Externalizing and Internalizing Mental Health Problems in Adulthood,” Child & Adolescent Psychiatry & Mental Health, August 23, 2015, accessed March 8, 2019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4546259/.
  14. Stephen T. Russell et al., “Adolescent Health and Harassment Based on Discriminatory Bias,” American Journal of Public Health, March 2012, accessed March 8, 2019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3487669/.
  15. Kelly Lynn Mulvey et al., “Understanding Experiences With Bullying and Bias-based Bullying: What Matters and for Whom?” [abstract], Psychology of Violence, 2018, accessed March 8, 2019, https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2018-56152-004?doi=1.
  16. Christia Spears Brown, “The Educational, Psychological, and Social Impact of Discrimination on the Immigrant Child,” Migration Policy Institute, September 2015, accessed March 8, 2019, https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/educational-psychological-and-….
  17. Adam M. Leventhal et al., “Association of Reported Concern About Increasing Societal Discrimination With Adverse Behavioral Health Outcomes in Late Adolescence,” JAMA Pediatrics, October 2018, accessed March 8, 2019, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2696519.
  18. Eli Rosenberg, “The Schoolteachers Who Dressed up as ‘Mexicans’ and a MAGA Wall for Halloween Have Been Suspended,” The Washington Post, November 5, 2018, accessed February 21, 2019, https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2018/11/03/these-school-teachers-…